Dental implant is the artificial restoration of the root and the supporting tissue, we either call it artificial root or implanted tooth. The aim of the implantation is to create a superstructure which, in its appearance and function, substitutes and simulates the tooth or group of teeth. The most widespread implants are the so-called osseointegrated ones; they are surface treated titanium screws that are implanted into the tooth supporting bone, and after they are healed the bone cells grow into the microscopic gaps on the artificial root, fixing it steadily.
The artificial root implantation process begins with a dental examination, during which the patient and the dentist make a decision whether this is a possible treatment by the restoration of the dentition. If this is a possible solution, then after the panoramic X-ray and oral surgical opinion, the treatment sequences are planned; where, how many, and what kind of implantations are made. In case of complex anatomic circumstances it may be necessary to take dental CT photographs to help the examination of the discussed area in 3D. It is also decided, at this phase of the preparation; whether the available bone supply should be extend with a supplementary intervention, called bone restoration (bone transplantation, lifting of the maxillary sinus).
By implantation we use local anaesthesia, so we guarantee that its painless. According to patients it is much less a burden than a tooth extraction. After this the only changes in the mouth are the sutures, and after their removal the patient experiences the pre-operation conditions. Healing and usage of the implants is today a widely debated professional issue. According to our own experience, the healing process lasts 3-4 months, and, by strictly following the protocol, the rate of complications is under 2 percent. With other words, the success rate is above 98%. The beneficiaries of this favourable rate are of course the patients, who can use their implants for many-many years, even decades. For the time of ossification of course, when needed, we can make temporary restorations. After the healing process is over, begins the at most few weeks long process by the end of which the patient can wear the teeth supported by the implants.
The most common expectation in connection with the artificial root implants is that the patient should avoid wearing dentures. For this aim, this method is always sufficient; the only hindrance is mostly only the number of the planned implants. However, there are some cases when with the implants we only support a given type of removable prosthesis. In this case a artificial root implants have a hard job, for they –following from their great stability- the movable dentures became a stability similar to the fixed prostheses or the natural teeth, which corresponds to the comfort of the dental implant. These prostheses are called overdenture.
The ’rejections’ that happen after the successful implantation and a short usage have two main reasons; the artificial root becomes overcharged because of wrong design, or because of hygienic reasons periimpaltilis develops (inflammation around implants). The first case is evitable by following the strict rules of design: our success is success only in the long run, there are no compromises in planning. For the patient this means the following; if we are unable to implant as many implants as neede for the given prosthesis, (bone supply, expenses, etc.) we do not try and use less implants, because we would lose them early, but we find other solutions. The other reason is evitable by adequately informing the patient; by presenting the tooth cleaning tools and by the deliberate usage of them by the patient, and by the regular clinical check-ups. In case of heavy smokers or patients with diabetes, it has outstanding importance. About the titanium implant the relaxing fact can be claimed: the body does not recognise it as a foreign body, it does not even ’see’ it, so the possibility of an immune reaction and real rejection appearing by transplantations is here excluded.
In summary, implantation is the most infallible method of dentistry, the risks and discomforts accompanying it are negligible, its reliability however is outstanding in the long run.